Lipshitz, S.P., R.A. Wannamaker and J. Vanderkooy, "A Theoretical Survey of Quantization and Dither," J. Audio Eng. Soc., vol. 40, 1992 May, pp. 355-375.


A theoretical survey of multi-bit quantization is presented, beginning with the classical model of undithered quantization and proceeding to modern statistical models of undithered, subtractively dithered, and non-subtractively dithered quantizing systems. Properties of the error and output signals for each type of system are examined in relation to the input, using both first and second order statistical approaches. The virtues of various dither signals are assessed for use in practical applications. It is hoped that this survey can help to clarify the differences between different types of dithered quantization schemes and to correct some of the common misunderstandings regarding the effects of dithered quantization.