Wannamaker, R.A., "Subtractive and Non Subtractive Dithering: A Comparative Analysis," J. Audio Eng. Soc., vol. 52 (Dec. 2004).


An analysis of subtractively and non-subtractively dithered quantizing systems, with and without noise-shaping error feedback, is presented. Detailed comparison of their relative advantages and disadvantages is made, including their inherent signal-to-noise ratios and the requirement for knowledge of the dither signal at the output of subtractive systems. A practical discussion of the implications is presented as well as the most thoroughgoing mathematical analysis of either system which currently exists in print.