Lipshitz, S.P., R.A. Wannamaker, J. Vanderkooy and J.N. Wright, "Non-Subtractive Dither," Proc. of the 1991 IEEE Workshop on Applications of Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics, New Paltz, NY, 1991 Oct.


A mathematical investigation of quantizing systems using non-subtractive dither is presented. It is shown that with a suitably-chosen dither probability density function (pdf), certain moments of the total error can be made signal-independent and the error signal rendered white, but that statistical independence of the error and the input signal is not achievable. Some of these results are known but appear to be unpublished. The earliest references to many of these results are contained in manuscripts by one of the authors [JNW] but they were later discovered independently by Stockham and Brinton, Lipshitz and Vanderkooy, and Gray. In view of many widespread misunderstandings regarding non-subtractive dither, it seems that formal presentation of these results is long overdue.